supports the latest WiFi6 (IEEE 802.11ax) with special features like OFDMA, 1024QAM and MU-MIMO. Module includes also Bluetooth 5.0 radio, is backward compatible (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n/ac) and operates in 2.4 and 5 GHz bands.
IEEE 802.11n-2009 or 802.11n is a wireless-networking standard that uses multiple antennas to increase data rates. The Wi-Fi Alliance has also retroactively labelled the technology for the standard as Wi-Fi 4. It standardized support for multiple-input multiple-output, frame aggregation, and security improvements, among other features, and can be used in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands.
As the first Wi-Fi standard that introduced MIMO (Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output) support, sometimes devices/systems that support 802.11n standard (or draft version of the standard) are being referred to as MIMO (Wi-Fi products), especially before the introduction of the next generation standard. The use of MIMO-OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to increase the data rate while maintaining the same spectrum as 802.11a was first demonstrated by Airgo Networks.
IEEE 802.11n-2009 is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11-2007 wireless-networking standard. 802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods. They are commonly used today in their 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac and 802.11ax versions to provide wireless connectivity in homes and businesses. Development of 802.11n began in 2002, seven years before publication. The 802.11n protocol is now Clause 20 of the published IEEE 802.11-2012 standard.
IEEE 802.11n is an amendment to IEEE 802.11-2007 as amended by IEEE 802.11k-2008, IEEE 802.11r-2008, IEEE 802.11y-2008, and IEEE 802.11w-2009, and builds on previous 802.11 standards by adding multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and 40 MHz channels to the PHY (physical layer), and frame aggregation to the MAC layer.
Channels operating with a width of 40 MHz are another feature incorporated into 802.11n; this doubles the channel width from 20 MHz in previous 802.11 PHYs to transmit data, and provides twice the PHY data rate available over a single 20 MHz channel. It can be enabled in the 5 GHz mode, or within the 2.4 GHz mode if there is knowledge that it will not interfere with any other 802.11 or non-802.11 (such as Bluetooth) system using the same frequencies. The MIMO architecture, together with wider-bandwidth channels, offers increased physical transfer rate over 802.11a (5 GHz) and 802.11g (2.4 GHz).
The 802.11n draft allows up to 4 × 4 : 4. Common configurations of 11n devices are 2×2:2, 2×3:2, and 3×2:2. All three configurations have the same maximum throughputs and features, and differ only in the amount of diversity the antenna systems provide. In addition, a fourth configuration, 3×3:3 is becoming common, which has a higher throughput, due to the additional data stream.
Assuming equal operating parameters to an 802.11g network achieving 54 megabits per second (on a single 20 MHz channel with one antenna), an 802.11n network can achieve 72 megabits per second (on a single 20 MHz channel with one antenna and 400 ns guard interval); 802.11n's speed may go up to 150 megabits per second if there are not other Bluetooth, microwave or Wi-Fi emissions in the neighborhood by using two 20 MHz channels in 40 MHz mode. If more antennas are used, then 802.11n can go up to 288 megabits per second in 20 MHz mode with four antennas, or 600 megabits per second in 40 MHz mode with four antennas and 400 ns guard interval. Because the 2.4 GHz band is seriously congested in most urban areas, 802.11n networks usually have more success in increasing data rate by utilizing more antennas in 20 MHz mode rather than by operating in the 40 MHz mode, as the 40 MHz mode requires a relatively free radio spectrum which is only available in rural areas away from cities. Thus, network engineers installing an 802.11n network should strive to select routers and wireless clients with the most antennas possible (one, two, three or four as specified by the 802.11n standard) and try to make sure that the network's bandwidth will be satisfactory even on the 20 MHz mode.
PHY level data rate does not match user level throughput because of 802.11 protocol overheads, like the contention process, interframe spacing, PHY level headers (Preamble + PLCP) and acknowledgment frames. The main media access control (MAC) feature that provides a performance improvement is aggregation. Two types of aggregation are defined:
Frame aggregation is a process of packing multiple MSDUs or MPDUs together to reduce the overheads and average them over multiple frames, thereby increasing the user level data rate. A-MPDU aggregation requires the use of block acknowledgement or BlockAck, which was introduced in 802.11e and has been optimized in 802.11n.
When 802.11g was released to share the band with existing 802.11b devices, it provided ways of ensuring backward compatibility between legacy and successor devices. 802.11n extends the coexistence management to protect its transmissions from legacy devices, which include 802.11g, 802.11b and 802.11a. There are MAC and PHY level protection mechanisms as listed below:
To achieve maximum output, a pure 802.11n 5 GHz network is recommended. The 5 GHz band has substantial capacity due to many non-overlapping radio channels and less radio interference as compared to the 2.4 GHz band. An 802.11n-only network may be impractical for many users because they need to support legacy equipment that still is 802.11b/g only. In a mixed-mode system, an optimal solution would be to use a dual-radio access point and place the 802.11b/g traffic on the 2.4 GHz radio and the 802.11n traffic on the 5 GHz radio. This setup assumes that all the 802.11n clients are 5 GHz capable, which is not a requirement of the standard. Quite a few Wi-Fi-capable devices only support the 2.4 GHz and there is no practical way to upgrade them to support 5 GHz. Some enterprise-grade APs use band steering to send 802.11n clients to the 5 GHz band, leaving the 2.4 GHz band for legacy clients. Band steering works by responding only to 5 GHz association requests and not the 2.4 GHz requests from dual-band clients.
After the first draft of the IEEE 802.11n standard was published in 2006, many manufacturers began producing so-called "draft-n" products that claimed to comply with the standard draft, even before standard finalization which mean they might not be inter-operational with products produced according to IEEE 802.11 standard after the standard publication, nor even among themselves. The Wi-Fi Alliance began certifying products based on IEEE 802.11n draft 2.0 mid-2007. This certification program established a set of features and a level of interoperability across vendors supporting those features, thus providing one definition of "draft n" to ensure compatibility and interoperability. The baseline certification covers both 20 MHz and 40 MHz wide channels, and up to two spatial streams, for maximum throughputs of 144.4 Mbit/s for 20 MHz and 300 Mbit/s for 40 MHz (with short guard interval). A number of vendors in both the consumer and enterprise spaces have built products that have achieved this certification.
DMG Format: 802.11n Wi-Fi Wireless-N USB adapter for Apple Mac OS X Zip Format: 802.11n Wi-Fi Wireless-N USB adapter for Apple Mac OS X Articles:Newer Macs require SIP protection to be disabled in order to install USB driversForgot Administrator Password
Wireless N USB Adapter TL-WN722N allows you to connect a desktop or notebook computer to a wireless network and access high-speed Internet connection. Complies with IEEE 802.11n, they provide wireless speed up to 150Mbps, which is beneficial for the online gaming or even video streaming. Also, wireless security encryption could be established simply at a push of QSS (Quick Setup Security) button, preventing the network from outside threats.
*Maximum wireless transmission rates are the physical rates derived from IEEE Standard 802.11 specifications. Range and coverage specifications are based upon test results under normal usage conditions. Actual wireless transmission rate and wireless coverage are not guaranteed, and will vary as a result of 1) environmental factors, including building materials, physical objects and obstacles, 2) network conditions, including local interference, volume and density of traffic, product location, network complexity, and network overhead and 3) client limitations, including rated performance, location, connection quality, and client condition.
MediaTek RT5370 is a high-performance 802.11n Wi-Fi SoC with USB 2.0 interface. RT5370 features integrated 802.11n baseband (150Mbit/s), MAC (media access control), power amplifier and low-noise amplifier, along with both transmit-receive and antenna diversity switches.
The simplest way to determine the 802.11 protocol of a network is to reveal the hidden advanced wi-fi details from within the wireless menu in Mac OS, where you will find band PHY mode and other information. The following tips work the same on virtually every vaguely modern version of Mac OS and Mac OS X.
This trick can be particularly helpful if your router is dual-band (or greater) and you want to know which 802.11 protocol the SSID is using before connecting to it. For example, some routers may broadcast multiple networks, say an 802.11ac along with an 802.11g, but you might want to connect only to the 802.11ac broadcast.
I have found that 802.11ac is quite good and is not only fast but has a long range, whereas 802.11n seems to have a weaker signal. My network broadcasts both with dual access points for compatibility I suppose, but I always try to connect to the 802.11ac access point for maximum speeds.
BOINTEC CPE803-K is a WLAN module supporting IEEE 802.11 b/g/n standards with 6-pin connector supporting USB 2.0/1.1 interface. This is a small form factor and low cost compact WLAN module designed for the wi rel e s s co nne ct I v I ty of0 produ cts with embedded system. This module operates in 2.4GHz ISM frequency band, it applies a highly integrated MAC/BBP and RF single chip RIS370 with 150Mbps PHY rate supporting. This module can be built-in other embedded applications such as IP Camera, IP set top box, GPS, Internet radio apparatus,it can be directly soldered on a main PCB. Bointec CUB805-K implements half-duplex OFDM, CCK and DSSS base-band processing supporting lEEE 802.11 b/g/n data rates. The MAC supports the IEEE 802.11 wireless MAC protocol as well as 802.11 i security, receive and transmit filtering, error recovery, and quality of service (QoS). CUB601-K also supports software based Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS). Simply enable the WPS feature from the WIFI software and your device will automatically setup the WIFI security with a compatible WPS wireless router. Setting up a secure wireless network has never been so easy. 2b1af7f3a8