The normal onset and sequence of physical maturation vary greatly based on sex, race and ethnicity, and environmental factors. Tanner Stages are utilized in pediatric and adolescent practice to counsel patients about the timing of anticipated body changes, perform appropriate medical screenings, and monitor for deviations in normal timing and sequence of physical signs of puberty that may represent physiologic problems. Changes that are associated with but not directly measured by Tanner staging include bone growth and fusion, body composition and linear growth, and hematocrit values. Tanner Staging, rather than chronological age, should be used in assessing pubertal development. Clinical examples of use include delivering timely anticipatory guidance on menstrual hygiene needs (menarche occurs about 2 years post-thelarche/tanner 2 breasts) or targeting scoliosis exams at well-visits before and during peak height velocity (Tanner 2 to 3, depending on sex).
In males, the onset of puberty ranges from 9 to 14 years of age. The first secondary sexual characteristic visible is gonadarche when the testicular volume reaches greater than or equal to 4 mL (or long axis greater than or equal to 2.5 cm) and enters tanner stage 2. During Tanner Stage 3 genital development, males undergo peak height velocity. Spermarche, the counterpart of menarche in females, is the development of sperm in males and typically occurs during genital Tanner Stage 4.
Pubertal development generally follows a predictable pattern of onset, sequence, and velocity. However, population norms are published to help clinicians determine which adolescents fall outside two standard deviations of the mean and require further investigation. Precocious puberty is defined as the onset of Tanner 2 secondary sexual characteristics before age 8 years in females or age 9 years in males if the continued progression of pubertal development occurs soon after. Delayed puberty should be considered if females have not reached Tanner 2 thelarche by age 13 years old or if males have not reached Tanner 2 gonadarche by age 14 years. Primary amenorrhea is defined as a failure to start menses within 3 years of Tanner Stage 2 (thelarche) or by age 15 years. It is important to note that some males will temporarily develop glandular breast tissue (pubertal gynecomastia) between genital tanner stage 3 and 4, which may be emotionally troubling but not physically harmful. Abnormalities may be caused by idiopathic conditions, nutritional deficiencies, HPG axis variations, or neoplastic and genetic disorders. Describing these disorders is outside the scope of this article.
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Thanner Serviceable Hydrostatic Release Units are designed for heavy duty installations, reliable function and no limited lifetime if serviced regularly. Service intervals follow the raft servicing. The units can be manualy released and reset for continued service. The DK84.1 is approved to the new MED and SOLAS regulations together with ships wheel approval, USCG, TC and many others. The unit is made from stainless steel and composite polyamid plastic to meet the tough requirements of the marine environment. The unit operates independently of the life raft buoyancy and are approved for any life raft up to a load of 1850 kgs. All parts can be recycled and are made from non-toxic materiales. Special versions/release depths are available on request. The DK84.1 FN and DK84 RN2 does not comply with MED / SOLAS but have the same main carateristics as DK84.1 None SOLAS versions are available with release depths down to 250m water gauge.
Leather is a manufactured product. It is produced by the tanner from the skins or hides of animals, reptiles, fishes and birds, and leather made from human skins is not unknown. The process by which skins are converted to leather is broadly covered by the term "tanning, " although tanning proper is only one of the operations necessary to produce finished leather. The object of tanning is to preserve the pelt against putrification through chemical processes and, at the same time, to preserve the natural fibrous structure from which ultimate strength and pliability are derived. This was originally attained by the use of natural substances, but manufactured chemicals are now increasingly employed for this purpose.
By the eleventh century the tanner's art had been reduced to well-established techniques, but the chemical principles involved were not defined until the nineteenth century. Until the latter part of the nineteenth century, the methods of producing leather were substantially those of the preceding two thousand years.
In addition, Coxe noted that the tanner's essential place in society was strengthened by the fact that "the manufacture of hides and skins are of great importance to agriculture." For example, "bark, abundant everywhere, is redundant in new settlements, where the tanning facilitates the destruction of the forests, which obstruct agriculture."2
The craftsmen whom the Virginia Company planned to send to the New World included at first no tanners, curriers, or shoemakers. The Company probably intended to supply the settlers with shoes as well as every other form of clothing. The author of Nova Britannia mentioned no leather workers in his list of artificers whose services would be needed in the colony1 . This may indicate that he was anxious to advance the interests of the colony, and was careful not to present it as a possible rival to any branch of English trade and manufactures. Possibly he wished to make Virginia appear in a favorable light to the English by showing that an increase in colonial population would provide a larger market for English manufactured goods which was one of the purposes of founding the colony. In a broadside issued by the Virginia Company in 1611, however, tanners and shoemakers were among those to whom inducements to emigrate were offered. The need for such craftsmen in Virginia may have resulted from the failure of the Company to provide the colony with supplies. In addition, by 1611 the increasing number of 6cattle in the colony as well as vast numbers of deer provided the settlers with a plentiful supply of raw hides2. The inducements offered by the Virginia Company apparently were effective, for it is known that tanners and shoemakers followed their trades in Virginia in 1616.3 In 1620 tanners, shoemakers, and leather dressers were among the tradesmen the Virginia Company again attempted to persuade to settle4in the colony .
The Virginia Assembly passed a law in 1691 entitled "An Act declareing the dutie of Tanners, Curryers, and Shoemakers,"25 which was apparently intended to regulate the leather industry by placing tanners, curriers, and shoemakers13under careful restrictions in following their callings and in no way was it intended to represent governmental encouragement of the industry. The legislature probably hoped that if better leather were produced in Virginia, the inhabitants would be less dependent on England for leather articles. During periods of low tobacco prices, Virginians were often unable to buy English commodities and without some local supplies of leather products, they would find themselves short of many necessary articles, such as shoes, saddles, and harness. During these times, and they were frequent, the colonists turned to locally manufactured products.26
The primary purpose of the act, however, may have been to eliminate those tanners, curriers, and shoemakers whose work was of poor quality, and thereby to reduce the quantity of leather articles produced. The act indicates that leather and leather products were being manufactured in Virginia of an inferior quality. Poor workmanship usually results from lack of skill and knowledge, or from lack of time to do the work thoroughly, or perhaps from both deficiencies. It is not surprising that much care less work resulted from inadequate and often unskilled labor, especially when there was an abundant supply of materials. It is significant that in restrictions imposed upon tanners, 14curriers, and shoemakers by the act, the element of time plays an important part. For instance, no leather was to be over-limed nor was leather to be put into the tan vats until the lime had been thoroughly soaked out of it. The currier was not permitted to "curry any hyde or skin being not thoroughly dry" and he was to use "good stuff, nor with less of that, than the leather will receive." He was also warned not to use salt in preparing leather. The shoemaker was cautioned to use only thread that was sound, twisted, and waxed and rosined, and the stitches were to be drawn with the utmost care. 2b1af7f3a8