Political parties stimulate large number of people for political action (strike, dharna, rally, demonstration, etc.) and political participation (voting, selection of leaders). They help in reinforcing the existing political attitudes and beliefs or inculcate new ones through the process of political socialization.
In brief, political socialization is the process by which individuals acquire political culture, political attitudes and develop patterns of political behaviour. This involves not only learning the prevailing beliefs of a society but also accepting the surrounding political system.
(a) Reinforcement of existing political culture, i.e., the norms, values, symbols, attitudes, beliefs and rules that guide a political system, which are determined jointly by the history of the system and the experiences of its members.
For political socialization, political parties sometimes organize formal training programme for their members. In such programmes, lectures by their seasoned leaders and renowned ideologues are delivered, necessary literature pertaining to their ideology is distributed and films relating to their ideology are shown.
It is generally seen that this process of political socialization starts from childhood quite unconsciously. Children often learn about political parties, especially about their symbol and slogans in the family. And, this process continues when children enter school. By the time children finish school and college education, they develop political attitudes that shapes their political behaviour in adult life.
The opinions of the public are shaped by the unique life experiences in which oneobtains. Public opinion is molded and shaped by mass media; which allows for an exchange ofinformation to a large population. Yielding the opportunity to manipulate popular opinionthrough selective doctrines. These beliefs are then used to aid the electorate in voting forcandidates. The political socialization of the U. electorate adds to and detracts from theMadisonian Model.The Madisonian model is a structure of government in which the powers ofadministration are confined into three separate branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Allof these branches of government together form the comprehensive structure of theMadisonian Model. Procedurally, this model of government operates in Congress establishinglaws, the president implementing laws, and the courts defining laws. It is here where thediscussion of politics takes place and where the opinion of the public is, or should be, put intoaction. Ultimately, governmental settlements are made based on the interests of the majority;but who influences the majority?Political Socialization is the process by which individuals obtain and internalize theirindividual opinions regarding politics. These individuals are known as the electorate; those whovote and elect representatives. Without the electorate, opinions of the public could be easilyoverlooked, resulting in majority rule. The public has a wide range of differing views on societyresulting in contrasting opinions. These opinions have a great range of fluidity; suggesting thatthey can be influenced and formed through different strategies. Political opinion is influencedby personal experiences; in particular, family upbringing, what school or institution is attended,ethnicity, religion, and countless additional circumstances throughout one's life which shape
their opinion. Having these converging conceptions, prevalent throughout society, promotesthe Madisonian model by forming a balance in power. While obstructing its intention, simply bythe majority of the population having similar shaped political ideologies solely based on a singleevent in time. Does public opinion, through the process of the political socialization, effectivelyinfluence the behavior of elected candidates? Public opinion influences elected representativesbecause it is the individuals, or electorate, who vote these delegates into office on the basis ofpersonal interpretations. It is the representatives' duty to represent our opinions to thegovernment. If there is an uproar in society, we as the electorates', expect candidates torespond to the issue. Their relevance and popularity are solely based off of the mass opinion ofthe public. Having multiple representatives expressing the various opinions of the electorateadds to the Madisonian Model by balancing power, while also hindering its design through theneed for public approval, potentially forcing these candidates to favor one aspect over another. In contemporary society, the media has a great pull on the opinion of the public. With60% of the population reporting low political socialization, the majority of political learningfrom the mass population stems from televised news. This allows for news stations to have agreat influence on public opinion simply by choosing what to report and how they go aboutreporting something. Additionally, these channels of communication may be easily influencedby politicians themselves, or solely by what information will attract more viewers and getgreater ratings. If news stations may choose what information to present to the public, then ispublic opinion truly the opinion of the people, or echoed beliefs of mass media? Incorporatingmass media communications - particularly social media, radio, and print - enrich the
Looking at political participation behavior of young adults in contemporary Europe, this paper provides the reader with a map of different terminologies and logics that are used to discuss youth political participation. The existing literature is examined through the lens of five guiding questions: what defines youth political participation? How does youth political participation differ from adult political participation? How do young adults develop political attitudes? How does youth political participation differ across Europe? What methods are being used to analyze youth political participation? For those researching youth political participation for the first time, this paper offers a useful overview of the topic. At the same time, it gives researchers who are already well-informed the opportunity to reflect on the current state of research in this field. Finally, this paper indicates where future research is needed.
This paper has sought to identify the relationship between political socialization and political culture. We have succeeded in establishing that the way a child is socialized, and the environment definitely impacts on his political culture. It is a widely known and accepted fact that man is a social creature and his identity and culture are formed in the society from which he develops and almost all of his activities and functions are directed through the society; there are few human activities which are not affected by community.Topic: Define the concepts political culture and political socialization. How would political scientists describe the connection between political socialization and political culture?The term Political Culture means the attitudes, feelings, ideas, and values that people have about politics, government, and their own role, and more generally about authority in all its various forms (Munroe, 1985). Political culture has further been referred to as the beliefs, habits, behavioural patterns, values and overall distinguishing attributes that make up and characterize a political community. A political culture is the way in which the individuals within the social setting view their political system, the way in which they perceive it to function and the level of acceptance that pervades as a result. Get Help With Your EssayIf you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Political socialization is the process by which individuals learn and frequently internalize a political lens framing their perceptions of how power is arranged and how the world around them is (and should be) organized; those perceptions, in turn, shape and define individuals' definitions of who they are and how they should behave in the political and economic institutions in which they live." Political socialization also encompasses the way in which people acquire values and opinions that shape their political stance and ideology: it is a "study of the developmental processes by which people of all ages and adolescents acquire political cognition, attitudes, and behaviors."It refers to a learning process by which norms and behaviors acceptable to a well running political system are transmitted from one generation to another. It is through the performance of this function that individuals are inducted into the political culture and their orientations towards political objects are formed. Schools, media, and the state have a major influence in this process.
Agents of socialization, sometimes referred to as institutions, work together to influence and shape people's political and economic norms and values. Such institutions include, but are not limited to: families, media, peers, schools, religions, work and legal systems.
Political socialization begins in childhood. Some research suggests that family and school teachers are the most influential factors in socializing children, but recent research designs have more accurately estimated the high influence of the media in the process of political socialization. On average, both young children and teenagers in the United States spend more time a week consuming television and digital media than they spend in school. Young children consume an average of thirty-one hours a week, while teenagers consume forty-eight hours of media a week. High school students attribute the information that forms their opinions and attitudes about race, war, economics, and patriotism to mass media much more than their friends, family, or teachers. Research has also shown that children who consume more media than others show greater support for and understanding of American values, such as free speech. This may be because eighty percent of the media content children consume is intended for an adult audience. In addition, the impact of the messages is more powerful because children's brains are "prime for learning", thus more likely to take messages and representations of the world at face value.  2b1af7f3a8